The 28-year-old is seen as an influential figure both on the pitch and in the dressing room by Mauricio Pochettino, who overlooked other candidates such as Hugo Lloris and Emmanuel Adebayor to give him the armband.
Dawson had held the role before his move to Hull in August.
Kaboul is currently in his second spell with the Lilywhites and has been the club’s captain over the course of the past few weeks on an interim basis.
The centre-back said: “I am delighted to have been given this responsibility.
“To follow in the footsteps of some of the legendary captains that have represented this football club is a fantastic honour.
“It is a great achievement for me on a personal level and I hope to help lead this team to great things in the future.”
Kaboul re-joined Spurs from Portsmouth in 2010 after an 18 months stint on the South Coast.